Bearings are devices used to connect a bridge superstructure to its substructure. The primary function of a bearing is to transfer concentrated vertical forces from the superstructure into the substructure, but in many cases it must also permit rotation and translation to occur freely between the substructure and superstructure. In practice, the bearing’s resistance to such movements is small, but not exactly zero.
Elastomeric bearings have been widely used in the United States since the 1950s. The first recorded use was in1957, when neoprene pads were used to support prestressed concrete beams in Victoria, Texas (Muscarella, 1995). The earliest use of elastomeric pads worldwide is reported to have been in Australia where plain rubber pads were used to support a viaduct that was constructed in 1889 (Lindley, 1981). Those pads were reported to still be in service, with very little deterioration, in 1981
This tutorial is devoted to assigning reinforce elastomer stiffness in horizontal and vertical directions to software